產品仿制,產品的差異化和國際貿易

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產品仿制,產品的差異化和國際貿易(中文1900字,英文1000字)
尼古拉斯•施密特
     當兩家公司的進入和銷售在兩個相互依存的市場,但是產生有貿易壁壘時,本文使用霍特林方針產品差別化模型,推導了平衡產品配置和價格。這表
明,不管產品仿制,沒有貿易還是產品差異化與雙向或單向的貿易都是符合平衡的。

1. 簡介
在英國不列顛哥倫比亞省,有幾個小釀造廠明確表明他們所生產的產品是“根據1516年巴伐利亞純度法釀造”,從而模仿德國啤酒的屬性。與此相反,鐘表業常常盡力將它們的產品與其它同類產品區別開來(例如斯沃琪)。啤酒釀造商可以選擇分化,和制定出特殊的口味和制作程序。我的模型表明,選擇仿制和分化是由于存在運輸成本和關稅。他們在不列顛哥倫比亞省提高德國啤酒的價格,從而影響到國內企業的地理位置。事實上,加拿大對歐洲啤酒收取的關稅非常高,因為它大約是國內產品的零售價百分之三十(環球郵報1993年)。但是在某些行業,比如鐘表業,由于對有關的產品的單位價值的保護和產品運輸成本過低,從而使得產品實施合法的模仿并不是有利可圖。

PRODUCT IMITATION, PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION
AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE
By NICOLAS SCHMITT'
Using the Hotelling approach to product differentiation, this article derives
the equilibrium product configurations and prices when two firms enter and
sell in two interdependent markets separated by barriers to trade. It shows that
product imitation and no trade as well as product differentiation with two-way
or one-way trade are all consistent with the equilibrium.


1. INTRODUCTION
    In British Columbia, several microbrewers explicitly indicate on their products that they are ''brewed according to the Bavarian purity laws of 1516,'' imitating thereby a product attribute of German beers. In contrast, firms in the watch industry often go out of their way to differentiate their products (for instance the Swatch). Beers brewers could have chosen differentiation and develop a specific taste or process. My model suggests that the choice between imitation and differentiation is determined by the existence of transport costs and tariffs. They increase the price of German beers in British Columbia and, thus, affect the location decision of domestic firms. Indeed, the Canadian duty on European beers is high since it is approximately 30 percent of the retail price of domestic products (Globeand Mail 1993). In the watch industry, protection and transport costs are too low with respect to the unit value of the product for legal imitation to be profitable.

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